Technology acceptance of augmented reality to attitude and self-efficacy in learning English

Ryani Yulian, Yuniarti Yuniarti, Noor Azli Bin Affendy Lee


This study examined the effects of the technology acceptance of augmented reality on attitude and self-efficacy in learning English and modelled the direct and indirect effects. It employed non-experimental, analytic survey research with structural equation modelling. Two hundred and fifty-seven participants completed the survey questionnaire. Data analysis used SmartPLS to examine the outer loading, validity and reliability, R square, path coefficients, specific indirect effects, total effects, and model fit. Structural equation modelling (SEM) showed that perceived usefulness has no significant effect on attitude and self-efficacy, while perceived ease of use has a significant effect on attitude but no significant effect on self-efficacy. Perceived enjoyment has a positive correlation with attitude and self-efficacy. This study provides empirical facts that support and contradict previous relevant studies on the technology acceptance on attitude and self-efficacy in using augmented reality technology for language learning. The results of the study also contribute ideas on how technology can be anchored not only from technological but also from cognitive and affective perspectives as well.


technology acceptance model; augmented reality; attitude; self-efficacy

Full Text:



Alfadda, H. A., & Mahdi, H. S. (2021). Measuring students’ use of zoom application in language course based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 50(4), 883–900.

Al-Gahtani, S. S. (2016). Empirical investigation of e-learning acceptance and assimilation: A structural equation model. Applied Computing and Informatics, 12(1), 27–50.

Álvarez-Marín, A., Velázquez-Iturbide, J. Á., & Castillo-Vergara, M. (2021). Technology acceptance of an interactive augmented reality app on resistive circuits for engineering students. Electronics (Switzerland), 10(11).

Alzahrani, N. M. (2020). Augmented Reality: A systematic review of its benefits and challenges in e-learning contexts. Applied Sciences 2020, Vol. 10, Page 5660, 10(16), 5660.

Bursali, H., & Yilmaz, R. M. (2019). Effect of augmented reality applications on secondary school students’ reading comprehension and learning permanency. Computers in Human Behavior, 95(June 2018), 126–135.

Cabero-Almenara, J., Fernández-Batanero, J. M., & Barroso-Osuna, J. (2019). Adoption of augmented reality technology by university students. Heliyon, 5(5), 1–9.

Cai, Y., Pan, Z., & Liu, M. (2022). Augmented reality technology in language learning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning.

Çetinkaya Özdemir, E., & Akyol, H. (2021). Effect of augmented reality-based reading activities on some reading variables and participation in class. International Journal of Progressive Education, 17(4), 135–154.

Charness, N., & Boot, W. R. (2016). Technology, Gaming, and social networking. handbook of the psychology of aging: eighth edition, 389–407.

Che Dalim, C. S., Sunar, M. S., Dey, A., & Billinghurst, M. (2020). Using augmented reality with speech input for non-native children’s language learning. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 134, 44–64.

Chen, M., Wang, L., Zou, D., Lin, S., Xie, H., Wang, L., Zou, D., Lin, S., Xie, H., Chen, M., Wang, L., & Zou, D. (2020). Effects of captions and English proficiency on learning effectiveness , motivation and attitude in augmented-reality-enhanced theme-based contextualized EFL learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 0(0), 1–31.

Cheng, K. H. (2017). Reading an augmented reality book: An exploration of learners’ cognitive load, motivation, and attitudes. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(4), 53–69.

Cong, W., & Li, P. (2022). The relationship between EFL learners’ communication apprehension, self-efficacy, and emotional intelligence. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 294.

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems, 13(3), 319–339.

Davis, F. D., Andrina Granić, & Nikola Marangunić. (2020). The technology acceptance model 30 years of TAM. Germany: Springer Cham.

Ebadi, S., & Ashrafabadi, F. (2022). An exploration into the impact of augmented reality on EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Education and Information Technologies, 27, 1–21.

Erbas, C., & Demirer, V. (2019). The effects of augmented reality on students’ academic achievement and motivation in a biology course. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 35(3), 450–458.

Esteban-Millat, I., Martínez-López, F., Pujol-Jover, M., GázquezAbad, J., & Alegret, A. (2018). An extension of the technology acceptance model for online learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(7), 895–910.

Getie, A. S. (2020). Factors affecting the attitudes of students towards learning English as a foreign language. Cogent Education, 7(1), 1738184.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks (Second Ed). SAGE Publications Ltd.

Henseler, J., Dijkstra, T. K., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Diamantopoulos, A., Straub, D. W., Ketchen, D. J., Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., & Calantone, R. J. (2014). Common beliefs and reality about PLS: comments on Rönkkö and Evermann (2013). Organizational Research Methods, 17(2), 182–209.

Kessler, G. (2018). Technology and the future of language teaching. Foreign Language Annals, 51(1), 205–218.

Lai, A. F., Chen, C. H., & Lee, G. Y. (2019). An augmented reality-based learning approach to enhancing students’ science reading performances from the perspective of the cognitive load theory. British Journal of Educational Technology, 50(1), 232–247.

M. Kassem, H. (2021). EFL enjoyment of Saudi English majors and its relation to their achievement, autonomy and self-efficacy. Journal of Education Sohag UNV, 82(82), 61–90.

Nguyen, Q. N., Pham, L. N., & Nguyen, H. T. T. (2022). Tasks, self-efficacy, and L2 motivational self system in an online emergency EFL speaking class: A mixed-methods study. Jalt Call, 17(1), 31–63.

Oz, H., Demirezen, M., & Pourfeiz, J. (2015). Digital device ownership, computer literacy, and attitudes toward foreign and computer-assisted language learning. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 186, 359–366.

Pan, X. (2020). Technology acceptance, technological self-efficacy, and attitude toward technology-based self-directed learning: learning motivation as a mediator. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2791.

Panadero, E., Jonsson, A., and Botella, J. (2017). Effects of self-assessment on self-regulated learning and self-efficacy: four meta-analyses. Educ. Res. Rev. 22, 74-98. doi: 10.1016/j.edurev.2017.08.004

Scrivner, O., Madewell, J., Buckley, C., & Perez, N. (2017). Augmented reality digital technologies (ARDT) for foreign language teaching and learning. FTC 2016 - Proceedings of Future Technologies Conference, 395–398.

Venkatesh, V. (2015). Technology acceptance model and the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology. Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, 1–9. doi:10.1002/9781118785317.

Wang, X., Lu, A., Lin, T., Liu, S., Song, T., Huang, X., & Jiang, L. (2022). Perceived usefulness predicts second language learners’ continuance intention toward language learning applications: a serial multiple mediation model of integrative motivation and flow. Education and Information Technologies.

Wedyan, M., Falah, J., Elshaweesh, O., Alfalah, S. F. M., & Alazab, M. (2022). Augmented reality-based English language learning: importance and state of the art. Electronics, 11(17), 2692.

Yulian, R., Ruhama’, U., & Sucipto. (2022). Developing augmented reality (AR) as assisted technology in reading based on content-language integrated learning. JTP - Jurnal Teknologi Pendidikan, 24(1), 23–37.

Zhang, Y. (2022). The Effect of on educational technology on EFL learners’ self-efficacy. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1466.

Zhou, L., Xue, S., & Li, R. (2022). Extending the technology acceptance model to explore students’ intention to use an online education platform at a university in China. SAGE Open, 12(1).

Zuo, T., Birk, M. V., van der Spek, E. D., & Hu, J. (2022). The mediating effect of fantasy on engagement in an AR game for learning. Entertainment Computing, 42(1), 100480.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 by the authors

JOURNAL OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING INNOVATIONS AND MATERIALS (JELTIM) is published by the Language Center of Universitas Tanjungpura in collaboration the with the English Language Teaching Materials (ELTeaM) association  [Download MoU]. The publication of this journal is indexed by Arjuna (Sinta-2)Google Scholar, ROAD, Garuda, Scilit, Crossref, Research Gate, and Dimensions


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution
NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

View My Stats