Structuring of the periodization in antiquity: the Roman military training

Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

Abstract


Background and Study Aim. The sportive periodization originated from the military periodization of ancient civilizations and of the Greek Tetrad for the sportive preparation the ancient Greek athletes. The objective of the review was to explain the periodization of the Roman military training.  

Materials and Methods. The articles were selected in January and February of 2024 in 10 databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Research Gate, Scielo, Redalyc, Scopus, DOAJ, ScienceDirect, Semantic Scholar, and Latindex) with the following keywords: Roman military training, Roman soldiers, Roman Empire territory, Tetrad during Roman military training, Roman military equipment, and Roman military tactics.

Results. Ancient Rome conquered almost all Western Europe, North Africa, and part of the Middle East because the nation was very militarized. The military training during ancient Rome for the soldiers and sailors had several types of training that were physical training, training, technical training, and technical and tactical training. So, for the war coach to organize all these training sessions for the Roman military, he needed to structure the periodization. The periodization of the Roman military training was used with several mesocycles of 4 to 6 months of duration during various moments of the year for the soldier and the sailor to always be prepared for war. In 146 B.C., the Roman Empire conquered ancient Greece and after this moment, the Romans used the scientific knowledge of the Greeks to structure the Roman military training. Then, the Romans used the Tetrad of the Greeks to structure the military training. Roman military training was structured with several Tetrad during 4 to 6 months. Therefore, the Tetrad was inserted into the mesocycle of 4 to 6 months.

Conclusions. In conclusion, the periodization of the Roman military training was very organized for the military to achieve a high performance in the war.

 


Keywords


Ancient periodization; Mesocycle; Microcycle; Training Load; War

Full Text:

PDF SIMILARITY

References


Argüín, R. (2011). La guardia pretoriana en combate. Rutinas de entrenamiento, operaciones, tácticas y despliegues. Habis, -(42), 229-252. https://idus.us.es/handle/11441/31114

Api, G., & Arruda, D. (2022). Comparison of periodization models: a critical review with practical applications. Journal of Applied Sports Sciences, 2(-), 77-105. https://journal.nsa.bg/journal-of-applied-sports-sciences-vol-2-december-2022/

Barbanti, V. (1997). Teoria e prática do treinamento esportivo. 2ª ed. São Paulo: Edgard Blücher.

Bompa, T. (2002). Periodização: teoria e metodologia do treinamento. 4ª ed. São Paulo: Phorte.

Cadena, J. (2023). Sistematixación de mesociclo para evitar lesiones en arqueros de 8 a 10 años de San Antonio de Pichincha. (Trabajo de Tecnólogo Superior en la Actividad Física, Deportiva y Recreación). Tecnológico Universitario Pichincha, Quito, Ecuador. https://repositorio.tecnologicopichincha.edu.ec/handle/123456789/371

Cortes, D. (2023). La planeación deportiva: un processo que supera la periodización. Revista Digital: Arcofader, 2(1), 79-95. https://revista.arcofader.org/index.php/inicio/article/view/25

Costa, I. (2022). Preparación física para el fitness y el deporte de rendimiento. Mar del Plata: Universidad FASTA. http://redi.ufasta.edu.ar:8082/jspui/handle/123456789/929

Coulston, J. (2013). Courage and cowardice in the Roman Imperial army. War in History, 20(1), 7-31. https://doi.org/10.1177/0968344512454518

Coulston, J. (2004). Military identity and personal self-identity in the Roman army. In. Proceedings of the Forth Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Org.). Roman Rule and Civic Life: local and regional perspectives. Vol. 4. Brill. p. 133-152. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004401655_009

Dantas, E., Luján, J., Bispo, M., Godoy, E., Santos, C., Bello, M., & Cuadras, G. (2022). Criteria for identifyng and assessing sports training periodization models. Retos, 45(-), 174-183. https://doi.org/10.47197/retos.v45i0.90837

Davies, M. (2024). The Roman army of the mid-republic: from conscription to volunteer service. Military History Chronicles, 1(2), 1-10. http://www.militaryhistorychronicles.org/the-roman-army-of-the-mid-republic-from-conscription-to-volunteer-service.html

Fernández, G. (2018). La evolución del ejército romano y sus aplicaciones a la museística: el museo del ejército romano. (Trabajo fin de grado en Historia). Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid. https://uvadoc.uva.es/handle/10324/33365

Fernández, J. (2023). Evolución histórica de la educación física. (Trabajo fin de grado). Facultad de Educación de Palencia, Universidad de Valladolid. https://uvadoc.uva.es/handle/10324/61929

Gomes, A. (1999). Treinamento desportivo: princípios, meios e métodos. Londrina: Treinamento Desportivo.

Gómez, M. (2010). La “armatura”: un ejercicio militar romano desde la perspectiva del siglo IV. Myrtia, 25(-), 337-346. https://revistas.um.es/myrtia/article/view/131771

Gómez, M. (2021). Especialistas en el ejército romano. La función militar de los frumentarii durante el principado. Studia Historica. Historia Antigua, 39(-), 309-335. https://doi.org/10.14201/shha202139309335

Gonçalves, B. (2016). Treinamentos e disciplinas militares do exército romano-bárbaro no século IV d.C. (Tese de Doutorado). História, UNESP. https://acervodigital.unesp.br/handle/11449/143801

Henrique, J. (2020). Terceira guerra servil: uma questão militar (73-71 a.C.). (Mestrado em História Militar). Universidade de Lisboa. https://repositorio.ul.pt/handle/10451/43829

Issurin, V. (2014). Periodization training from ancient precursors to structured block models. Kinesiology, 46(S1), 3-9. https://hrcak.srce.hr/en/127833

Kraemer, W., & Häkkinen, K. (2004). Treinamento de força para o esporte. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

Lei, K. (2023). Analysis of the changes of the military system in the late Roman Republic and the reasons behind them. Journal of Education, Humanities, and Social Sciences, 8(-), 521-529. https://doi.org/10.54097/ehss.v8i.4300

Marques Junior, N. (2012). Periodização do treino. Educação Física em Revista, 6(2), 1-34. https://portalrevistas.ucb.br/index.php/efr/article/view/3166

Marques Junior, N. (2020). Breve história sobre a evolução da periodização esportiva. Revista Edu-fisica.com: Ciencias Aplicadas al Deporte, 12(25), 33-50. https://revistas.ut.edu.co/index.php/edufisica/article/view/1910

Marques Junior, N. (2021a). Training load innovation: organization of the load based on the injury risk and skill effort. Marathon, 13(2), 80-87. https://marathon.ase.ro/vol15-2_en.asp

Marques Junior, N. (2021b). Periodização da antiguidade: o treino dos gladiadores. Revista Edu-fisica.com: Ciencias Aplicadas al Deporte, 13(28), 139-146. https://revistas.ut.edu.co/index.php/edufisica/article/view/2454

Marques Junior, N. (2022a). Periodização para o esporte contemporâneo. Revista de Investigación Cuerpo, Cultura y Movimiento, 12(2), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.15332/2422474X.7885

Marques Junior, N. (2022b). Periodização da antiguidade: a contribuição de Claudius Aelius Galenus. Revista Edu-fisica.com: Ciencias Aplicadas al Deporte, 14(29), 21-37. https://revistas.ut.edu.co/index.php/edufisica/article/view/2456

Marques Junior, N. (2022c). Periodização específica para o voleibol: estruturação subjetiva da carga do treino com bola. DeporVida, 19(53), 97-113. https://deporvida.uho.edu.cu/index.php/deporvida/article/view/853/2665

Marques Junior, N. (2022d). Períodos da periodização esportiva de Matveev. Revista Edu-fisica.com: Ciencias Aplicadas al Deporte, 14(30), 1-11. https://revistas.ut.edu.co/index.php/edufisica/article/view/2501

Marques Junior, N. (2023a). Periodization in antiquity: the Chinese military training. Marathon, 15(2), 50-60. https://marathon.ase.ro/vol15-2_en.asp

Marques Junior, N. (2023b). Carga de treino do microciclo da periodização esportiva. Revista de Investigación Cuerpo, Cultura y Movimiento, 13(1), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.15332/2422474X.8161

Marques Junior, N. (2023c). Lev Pavilovch Matveev: a contribuição da carga de treino para a periodização esportiva. Revista Olimpia, 20(3), 154-170. https://revistas.udg.co.cu/index.php/olimpia/article/view/4065

Marques Junior, N. (2023d). Análise da síndrome de adaptação geral no entendimento da carga de treino de Matveev. Lecturas: Educación Física y Deportes, 28(305), 114-129. https://doi.org/10.46642/efd.v28i305.4026

Matveev, L. (1991). Fundamentos do treino desportivo. 2ª ed. Lisboa: Horizonte.

Matveev, L. (1995). Preparação desportiva. São Paulo: FMU.

Matveev, L. (1997). Treino desportivo: metodologia e planejamento. Guarulhos: Phorte.

McAvoy, I. (2017). The effeminate east: orientalism in Roman military context (c. 200 BCE to c. 200 CE). (Doctor in Philosophy). Ancient History, Cardiff University. https://orca.cardiff.ac.uk/id/eprint/100823/

Montero, A. (2020). Sports training in ancient Greece and its supposed modernity. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 163-176. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2020.151.15

Moura, N., Han, P., Moura, L., Wang, G., & Yuan, T. (2023). Selected factors for triple jump preparation: a case study of an Olympic silver medalist. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 18(3), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/17479541221094670

Navarro, J., Núñez, M., & Caraballo, O. (2023). Modelos de planificación del entrenamiento deportivo moderno. Corozal: FUNGADE. https://redgade.com/libros/?fbclid=IwAR0sR653j4t_CnPuTGLpCeVni88fiGIXOgWguawnuiLeZI3ujqbNXG6tO2Q

Padilla, J. (2017). Planificación del entrenamiento deportivo: un enfoque metodológico de la estructura clásica. Barinas: Episteme. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321085436_Planificacion_del_Entrenamiento_Deportivo_Un_enfoque_metodologico_de_la_estructura_clasica

Parpiev, O. (2023). Characteristics of the development of physical education in the ancient east, ancient Greece, ancient Rome. European Journal of Interdisciplinary Research and Development, 18(-), 170-177. https://ejird.journalspark.org/index.php/ejird/article/view/749

Platonov, V. (2004). Teoria geral do treinamento desportivo olímpico. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

Ponte, V. (2017). El significado de las legiones em la creación de imperio roamno. European Journal of Legal History, 14(-), 712-773. https://www.glossae.eu/glossaeojs/article/view/292

Porter, D. (2023). Ars, virtus, impetus: gladiators training and Roman legionaries. (Master of Arts). Utah State University, Logan, Utah. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/etd/8750/

Ramalho, J., Carlan, C., & Funari, P. (2021). Estrategias militares en la antigüedad inicial tardía (313-350 d.C.): continuidades e incumplimientos. Revista da Escola Superior de Guerra, 36(76), 145-162. https://revista.esg.br/index.php/revistadaesg/article/view/1225

Rojo, B. (2019). Breve historia de los ejércitos: la legión romana. Madrid: Breve Historia.

Soria, I. (2018). La barbarización del ejército romano. STVDIVM. Revista de Humanidades, 24(-), 13-40. https://doi.org/10.26754/ojs_studium/stud.2018242603

Sorrosal, C. (2013). El ceremonial militar romano: liturgiuas, rituales y protocolos en los actos solemnes relativos a la vida y la muerte en el ejército romano del alto imperio. (Tesis Docotoral). Programas Culturales en Contacto en el Mediterráneo, Bellaterra, UAB. https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/133339

Souza, B. (1972). História da educação física. Porto Alegre: Escola de Educação Física do Instituto de Porto Alegre.

Stocking, C. (2016). The use and abuses of training science in Philostratus gymnasticus. Classical Antiquity, 35(1), 86-125. 10.1525/ca.2016.35.1.86

Stone, M., Hornsley, W., Haff, G., Fry, A., Suarez, D., Liu, J., Rave, J., & Pierce, K. (2021). Periodization and block periodization in sports. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 35(8), 2351-2371. 10.1519/JSC.0000000000004050

Stout, S. (1921). Training soldiers for the Roman legion. Classical Journal, 16(7), 423-431. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3288082

Tavares, W., & Gonçalves, A. (2023). O manual militar como artefato cultural: Vegécio e a ordenação do passado militar romano no Compêndio da Arte Militar (século IV d. C.). Antiguidad y Cristianismo, 40(-), 1-26. https://doi.org/10.6018/ayc.579661

Thomas, J., & Nelson, J. (2002). Métodos de pesquisa em atividade física. 3ª ed. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

Tubino, M., & Moreira (2003). Metodologia científica do treinamento desportivo. 13ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: Shape.

Verkhoshanski, Y. (2001). Treinamento desportivo: teoria e metodologia. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

Virgen, J., Aristizabal, D., & Orejuela, J. (2023). Descripción de los modelos periodización del entrenamiento deportivo utilizados en el Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Actividad Física y Deporte, 9(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.31910/rdafd.v9.n1.2023.2311

Westphalen, N. (2020). Roman warfare, ships and medicine. JMVH, 28(3), 1-10. https://jmvh.org/article/roman-warfare-ships-and-medicine/

Zakharov, A. (1992). Ciência do treinamento desportivo. Rio de Janeiro: GPS.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26418/tajor.v2i1.78257

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2024 Nelson Kautzner Marques Junior

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Tanjungpura Journal of Coaching Research published by

Sport Coaching Education Study Program
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
Tanjungpura University
Pontianak, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Jalan Prof. Dr. Hadari Mawawi, Pontianak KalBar

Creative Commons License
Tanjungpura Journal of Coaching Research 
by https://jurnal.untan.ac.id/index.php/TAJOR/index is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License