Utari Evy Cahyani, Siswanto Masruri, Syafiq Mahmadah Hanafi


This research examines the empirical linkages among entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial mindset, entrepreneurial skill, and entrepreneurial readiness of Islamic higher education students in Indonesia. This research also highlights the intervening role of an entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurial skills in the linkages between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial readiness. This study is based on social cognitive theory. The article is a quantitative research using a survey method. Data were collected using an online questionnaire with a sample of 310 Islamic college students in Indonesia. The data were analyzed using PLS-SEM to identify hypotheses. The results indicate that entrepreneurship education improves the entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurial skills. Surprisingly, entrepreneurship education has no direct effect on entrepreneurial readiness. Although entrepreneurship education indirectly affects entrepreneurial readiness, intervened by an entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurship skills. The results showed that the entrepreneurial mindset and entrepreneurship skills determine entrepreneurial readiness. The findings of this study are essential for Islamic higher education to provide entrepreneurship education that aims to develop an entrepreneurial mindset and improve entrepreneurship skills.


social cognitive theory; entrepreneurial mindset; entrepreneurship skills

Full Text:



Aldén, L., Hammarstedt, M., & Neuman, E. (2017). All about balance? A test of the Jack-of-all-Trades theory using military enlistment data. Labour Economics, 49(October 2015), 1–13.

Almahry, F. F., Sarea, A., Hamdan, A. M., & Al Mubarak, M. M. S. (2019). The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurs’ Skills. January, 183–197.

Badan Pusat Statistik. (2021). Unemployment Rate by Education Level 2015-2020. Survei Angkatan Kerja Nasional. education-level.html

Bandura, A. (1982). Self-Efficacy Mechanism in Human Agency. American Psychologist, 37(2), 122–147.

Bandura, A. (1986). Social Foundation of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice-Hall.

Barringer, B. R., & Ireland, R. D. (2016). Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures. Pearson.

Bosma, N., Hill, S., Ionescu-Somers, A., Kelley, D., Levie, J., & Tarnawa, A. (2020). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2019/2020 Global Report.

Byabashaija, W., & Katono, I. (2011). The impact of college entrepreneurial education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention to start a business in Uganda. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16(1), 127–144.

Carsrud, A. L., & Brannvack, M. (2009). Understanding the entrepreneurial mind-opening the black box. Spring Dordrecht Heidelberg.

Chin, L., Azali, M., & Masih, A. M. M. (2009). Tests of the different variants of the monetary model in a developing economy: Malaysian experience in the pre- and post-crisis periods. Applied Economics, 41(15), 1893–1902.

Coduras, A., Saiz-Alvarez, J. M., & Ruiz, J. (2016). Measuring readiness for entrepreneurship: An information tool proposal. Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, 1(2), 99–108.

Cui, J., Sun, J., & Bell, R. (2021). The impact of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial mindset of college students in China: The mediating role of inspiration and the role of educational attributes. International Journal of Management Education, 19(1), 100296.

Daniel, A. D. (2016). Fostering an entrepreneurial mindset by using a design thinking approach in entrepreneurship education. Industry and Higher Education, 30(3), 215–223.

De Hoyos-Ruperto, M., Pomales-García, C., Padovani, A., & Suárez, O. M. (2017). An Entrepreneurship Education Co-Curricular Program to Stimulate Entrepreneurial Mindset in Engineering Students. MRS Advances, 2(31–32), 1673–1679.

Dewi, D. P., Nurfajar, A. A., & Dardiri, A. (2018). Creating Entrepreneurship Mindset Based on Culture and Creative Industry in Challenges of The 21st Century Vocational Education. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 242(Icovet 2018), 67–70.

Din, B. H., Anuar, A. R., & Usman, M. (2016). The Effectiveness of the Entrepreneurship Education Program in Upgrading Entrepreneurial Skills among Public University Students. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 224(August 2015), 117–123.

Dutta, D. K., Li, J., & Merenda, M. (2011). Fostering entrepreneurship: Impact of specialization and diversity in education. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(2), 163–179.

Dzisi, S., Odoom, F. D., & Gligah, B. (2018). Entrepreneurship training and skills development in Africa: Evidence from Koforidua Technical University, Ghana. International Journal of Economics and Business Research, 15(4), 509–523.

Ekpe, I., Razak, R. C., Ismail, M., & Abdullah, Z. (2015). Entrepreneurial skill acquisition and youth’s self-employment in Malaysia: how far? Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 150–154.

Fayolle, A. (2000). Exploratory Study to Assess the Effect of Entrepreneurship Programs on French Student Entrepreneurial Behaviors. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 8(2), 169–184.

Fayolle, A. (2018). Personal views on the future of entrepreneurship education. A Research Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education, 25(May), 127–138.

Fayolle, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas-Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of entrepreneurship education programmes: A new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(9), 701–720.

Forbes. (2021). Indonesia’s 50 Richest. Indonesia’s Richest 2021.

Gartner, W. B. (1985). A Conceptual Framework for Describing the Phenomenon of New Venture Creation. The Academy of Management Review, 10(4), 696–706.

Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., & Gajón, E. (2020). Entrepreneurial university ecosystems and graduates’ career patterns: do entrepreneurship education programmes and university business incubators matter? Journal of Management Development, 39(5), 753–775.

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Thousand Oaks. Sage, 165.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139–152.

Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2013). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling: Rigorous Applications, Better Results and Higher Acceptance. Long Range Planning, 46(1–2), 1–12.

Handayati, P., Wulandari, D., Soetjipto, B. E., Wibowo, A., & Narmaditya, B. S. (2020). Does entrepreneurship education promote vocational students’ entrepreneurial mindset? Heliyon, 6(11), e05426.

Haynie, J. M., Shepherd, D., Mosakowski, E., & Earley, P. C. (2010). A situated metacognitive model of the entrepreneurial mindset. Journal of Business Venturing, 25(2), 217–229.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.

Ito, S., & Watanabe, T. (2020). Balanced Skills of Research Management Professionals. ISPIM Connects Bangkok-Partnering for an Innovative Community, Bangkok, March.

Joensuu-Salo, S., Viljamaa, A., & Varamäki, E. (2020). Do intentions ever die? The temporal stability of entrepreneurial intention and link to behavior. Education and Training, 62(3), 325–338.

Johannisson, B. (1991). University training for entrepreneurship: Swedish approaches. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 3(1), 67–82.

Johannisson, B. (2016). Limits to and prospects of entrepreneurship education in the academic context. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 28(5–6), 403–423.

Jones, C., & English, J. (2004). A Contemporary Approach to Entrepreneurship Education. Education and Training, 46(8/9), 416–423.

Karyaningsih, R. P. D., Wibowo, A., Saptono, A., & Narmaditya, B. S. (2020). Does entrepreneurial knowledge influence vocational students’ intention? Lessons from indonesia. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 8(4), 138–155.

Kautonen, T., van Gelderen, M., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2013). Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: A test of the theory of planned behaviour. Applied Economics, 45(6), 697–707.

Kementerian Agama RI. (2022). Portal Data Kementerian Agama RI. Data Umat Berdasarkan Agama.

Kurczewska, A., Doryń, W., & Wawrzyniak, D. (2020). An everlasting battle between theoretical knowledge and practical skills? The joint impact of education and professional experience on entrepreneurial success. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 8(2), 219–237.

Kurczewska, A., & Mackiewicz, M. (2020). Are jacks-of-all-trades successful entrepreneurs? Revisiting Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship. Baltic Journal of Management, 15(3), 411–430.

Kyro, P. (2008). A theoretical framework for teaching and learning entrepreneurship. International Journal of Business and Globalisation, 2(1), 39.

Laukkanen, M. (2000). Exploring alternative approaches in high-level entrepreneurship education: Creating micromechanisms for endogenous regional growth. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 12(1), 25–47.

Lazear, E. P. (2004). Balanced skills and entrepreneurship. American Economic Review, 94(2), 208–211.

Lazear, E. P. (2005). Entrepreneurship. Journal of Labor Economics, 23(4), 649–680.

Lechmann, D. S. J., & Schnabel, C. (2014). Are the self-employed really jacks-of-all-trades? Testing the assumptions and implications of Lazear’s theory of entrepreneurship with German data. Small Business Economics, 42(1), 59–76.

Linan, F. (2004). Intention-based models of entrepreneursship education. Piccola Impresa/Small Business, 3, 11–35.

Liñán, F., Sevilla, U. De, Economía, D., & Rodríguez-cohard, J. C. (2015). Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention Levels : a Role for Education. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(2), 195-218., 7(2), 195–218.

Luthans, F., Stajkovic, A. D., & Ibrayeva, E. (2000). Environmental and psychological challenges facing entrepreneurial development in transitional economies. Journal of World Business, 35(1), 95–110.

Mackiewicz, M., & Kurczewska, A. (2020). Is it the survival of the fittest or of the jacks-of-all-trades? Business survival in the light of Lazear’s theory. BRQ Business Research Quarterly.

Mukhtar, S., Wardana, L. W., Wibowo, A., & Narmaditya, B. S. (2021). Does entrepreneurship education and culture promote students’ entrepreneurial intention? The mediating role of entrepreneurial mindset. Cogent Education, 8(1).

Naumann, C. (2017). Entrepreneurial mindset: A Synthetic Literature Review. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 5(3), 149–172.

Neneh, B. N. (2019). From entrepreneurial alertness to entrepreneurial behavior: The role of trait competitiveness and proactive personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 138(October 2018), 273–279.

Olugbola, S. A. (2017). Exploring entrepreneurial readiness of youth and startup success components: Entrepreneurship training as a moderator. Journal of Innovation and Knowledge, 2(3), 155–171.

Orazem, P. F., Jolly, R., & Yu, L. (2015). Once an entrepreneur, always an entrepreneur? The impacts of skills developed before, during and after college on firm start-ups. IZA Journal of Labor Economics, 4(1).

Othman, N. H., Othman, N., & Juhdi, N. H. (2020). Entrepreneurship education and business opportunity exploitation: Positive emotion as mediator. Cakrawala Pendidikan, 39(2), 370–381.

Rodriguez, S., & Lieber, H. (2020). Relationship Between Entrepreneurship Education, Entrepreneurial Mindset, and Career Readiness in Secondary Students. Journal of Experiential Education, 43(3), 277–298.

Ruiz, J., Soriano, D. R., & Coduras, A. (2016). Challenges in Measuring Readiness for Entrepreneurship. Management Decision, 54(5), 1–29.

Saptono, A., Wibowo, A., Narmaditya, B. S., Karyaningsih, R. P. D., & Yanto, H. (2020). Does entrepreneurial education matter for Indonesian students’ entrepreneurial preparation: The mediating role of entrepreneurial mindset and knowledge. Cogent Education, 7(1).

Shirokova, G., Osiyevskyy, O., & Bogatyreva, K. (2016). Exploring the intention–behavior link in student entrepreneurship: Moderating effects of individual and environmental characteristics. European Management Journal, 34(4), 386–399.

Solesvik, M. Z., Westhead, P., Matlay, H., & Parsyak, V. N. (2013). Entrepreneurial assets and mindsets: Benefit from university entrepreneurship education investment. Education + Training, 55, 748–762.

Tawil, N. M., Hassan, R., Ramlee, S., & K-Batcha, Z. (2015). Enhancing entrepreneurship skill among university’s students by online business simulation. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 10(Spec. Issue on 4th International Technical Conference (ITC) 2014), 71–80.

Towers, N., Santoso, A. S., Sulkowski, N., & Jameson, J. (2020). Entrepreneurial capacity-building in HEIs for embedding entrepreneurship and enterprise creation – a tripartite approach. International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 48(8), 881–899.

Tung, D. T., Hung, N. T., Phuong, N. T. C., Loan, N. T. T., & Chong, S. C. (2020). Enterprise development from students: The case of universities in Vietnam and the Philippines. International Journal of Management Education, 18(1), 100333.

Varamaki, E., Joensuu, S., Tornikoski, E., & Viljamaa, A. (2015). The Development of Entrepreneurial Potential Among Higher Education Students. Journal Od Small Business and Enterprise Development, 22(3), 1462–6004.

Walter, S. G., & Block, J. H. (2016). Outcomes of entrepreneurship education: An institutional perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(2), 216–233.

Wardana, L. W., Narmaditya, B. S., Wibowo, A., Fitriana, Saraswati, T. T., & Indriani, R. (2021). Drivers of entrepreneurial intention among economics students in Indonesia. Entrepreneurial Business and Economics Review, 9(1), 61–74.

Wardana, L. W., Narmaditya, B. S., Wibowo, A., Mahendra, A. M., Wibowo, N. A., Harwida, G., & Rohman, A. N. (2020). The impact of entrepreneurship education and students’ entrepreneurial mindset: the mediating role of attitude and self-efficacy. Heliyon, 6(9), e04922.

Winkler, C. (2014). Toward a Dynamic Understanding of Entrepreneurship Education Research across the Campus – Social Cognition and Action Research. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 4(1), 69–93.



  • There are currently no refbacks.





Faculty of Economics and Business
Universitas Tanjungpura

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


real time web analytics View My Stats