ARSITEKTUR TRADISIONAL TIONGHOA: TINJAUAN TERHADAP IDENTITAS, KARAKTER BUDAYA DAN EKSISTENSINYA

Hamdil Khaliesh

Abstract


Budaya merupakan sebuah proses perkembangan pola pikir yang terjadi secara bertahap dalam waktu yang lama. Proses ini terjadi selama manusia ada dan terus  berkembang sesuai dengan  pengembangan wawasan keilmuan. Setting lingkungan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berperan kuat dalam pembentukan karakter budaya. Tionghoa merupakan etnis yang  banyak melakukan perpindahan ke daerah lain termasuk diantaranya daerah barat dan asia, baik dengan hubungan perdagangan maupun ekspedisi. Saat ini, banyak ditemukan daerah  Permukiman Tionghoa di beberapa tempat, sebut saja  Pecinan atau China town. Namun yang menarik adalah perbedaan tempat dan lingkungan tersebut tidak membuat eksistensi Budaya Tionghoa memudar. Dari sekian banyak karakter budaya Tionghoa, yang paling menonjol adalah bentuk arsitekturnya. Hal ini terjadi karena bentuk budaya yang paling mudah dilihat adalah bentuk fisiknya dalam hal ini  arsitektur bangunannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi bagaimana Budaya Tionghoa dapat bertahan dengan eksistensi nilai arsitektur bangunannya. Pemahaman terhadap karakteristik Arsitektur Tionghoa menjadi sangat penting dalam  memahami perkembangan budayanya. Penelitian ini dibatasi pada ruang lingkup arsitektur tradisional. Pemilihan wilayah studi juga berkaitan dengan  perbandingan Arsitektur  Tionghoa pada budaya barat dan timur. Interpretasi deskriptif berdasarkan persamaan dan perbedaan arsitektur  bangunan  akan menjelaskan bagaimana Etnis Tionghoa mampu meminimalisir pengaruh budaya lain terhadap karakter arsitekturnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukan identitas arsitektur tradisional Tionghoa  terbentuk  dengan konsistensi terhadap  nilai kepercayaanya. Sementara  kepercayaan adalah landasan utama yang membentuk Kebudayaan Tionghoa. Oleh karena itu,  refleksi eksistensi Budaya Tionghoa akan berimplikasi terhadap eksistensi identitas arsitekturnya

 

Culture is a process of mindset development that occur gradually over a long time. This process occurs during human life on earth and continue to evolve in accordance with the development of scientific knowledge. The environment setting is one of the factors that play a strong role in shaping the cultural character. Chinese is ethnic which has a lot of migration to other areas such as western and asian regions, either by trading or expedition. Currently,  many Chinese settlement areas are found in several places, called Pechinan or China town. The interesting one is the difference of environment where they live does not make the existence of their culture are fade. From several characters of Chinese culture, the most prominent is the architecture. This happens because of cultural forms is most easily seen in form of physical or architecture of the building. This study aims to identify how the Chinese culture can survive with the existence of architectural value. Understanding about Chinese architecture characteristic is very important to understand the development of the culture. This study limited only to the scope of traditional architecture. The selection of study area is also related to the comparation of Chinese architecture in western and eastern culture. Descriptive interpretation based on similarities and differences in the architecture of the building were able to explained how the Chinese ethnic minimize other cultural influences on the character of the architecture. The results showed that the traditional Chinese architectural identity is formed by the consistency of the religious value. While religion is the major base in the Chinese cultural forming. Therefore, the reflection of existence of Chinese culture have implications for the existence of their architectural identity


REFERENCES

Banks, J.A., Banks, & McGee, C. A. 1989. Multicultural education. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Carey, Peter.  1985. Masyarakat Jawa dan Masyarakat China. Jakarta: Pustaka Azet

Catanese, A. J. & Snyder, J. C. (1991). Pengantar Arsitektur. Jakarta: Penerbit Erlangga

Chen, Joyce. 2011. Chinese Immigration to the United States:History, Selectivity and Human Capital. The Ohio State University.

Damen, L. 1987. Culture Learning: The Fifth Dimension on the Language Classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

García. J. F. Culture. Ashland University, Ohio. http://personal.ashland.edu/jgarcia/culture1.html, didownload pada 15 okteober 2011.

Guo, Shibao &  Don J. DeVoretz. 2006. Chinese Immigrants in Vancouver: Quo Vadis? Discussion Paper No. 2340. Simon Fraser University. Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6. Canada

Handinoto. 2008. Perkembangan Bangunan Etnis Tionghoa di Indonesia (Akhir Abad ke 19 sampai tahun 1960-an). (Prosiding Simposium Nasional Arsitektur Vernakular 2. Petra Christian University – Surabaya

Khol, David G. 1984. Chinese Architecture in The Straits Settlements and Western Malaya: Temples Kongsis and Houses, Heineman Asia, Kuala Lumpur. Archipel. Volume 33, 1987. p. 185

Kupier, Kathleem. 2011.  The Culture Of Tionghoa. Britannica Educational Publishing. New York

Maspero, Henri. Translated by Frank A. Kierman, Jr. 1981. Taoism and Chinese Religion. University of Massachusetts

O’Gorman, J. F. 1997. ABC of Architecture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press

Pratiwo. 2010. Arsitektur Tradisional Tionghoa dan Perkembangan Kota. Penerbit Ombak. Yogyakarta

Rummens,  Joanna. 2001. An Interdisciplinary Overview of canadian Research on Identity. Department of Canadian Heritage for the Ethnocultural, Racial, Religious, and Linguistic Diversity and Identity Seminar Halifax, Nova Scotia

Salem, MA.  A Teacher’s Sourcebook for Chinese Art & Culture. Peabody Essex Museum.

Guo, Shibao  and Don J. DeVoretz. 2006. Chinese Immigrants in Vancouver:Quo Vadis? IZA Discussion Paper. Germany

Taylor, Rodney L. 1982.  "Proposition and Praxis: The Dilemma of Neo-Confucian Syncretism". Philosophy of East and West, Vol. 32, No. 2 pg. 187

Wade, Geoff. 2007. The “Liu/Menzies”World Map: A Critique. e-Perimetron, Vol. 2, No. 4, Autumn 2007 [273-280]

Widayati, Naniek. 2004. Telaah Arsitektur Berlanggam China di Jalan Pejagalan Raya Nomor 62 Jakarta Barat. Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur Vol. 32, No. 1, Juli 2004: 42 - 56

Wigglesworth, S. & Till, J. 1998. The Everyday and Architecture. Architectural Design. New York: Princeton Architectural Press

Wong, Bernard. 1998. Ethnicity and Entrepreneurship: The New Chinese Immigrants in  the San Francisco Bay Area. Allyn &Bacon A Simon & Schuster Company. San Francisco State University. United States of America


Full Text:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26418/lantang.v1i1.18811

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


View My Stats

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Flag Counter