FILOSOFI DAN PENERAPAN KONSEPSI BUNGA PADMA DALAM PERWUJUDAN ARSITEKTUR TRADISIONAL BALI

I Nyoman Widya Paramadhyaksa

Abstract


Padma adalah sebutan bunga teratai merah dalam bahasa Sanskerta. Padma tumbuh secara alami di media lumpur dengan kandungan air yang cukup. Akarnya tumbuh menjalar di media tanah, batangnya terendam di air, sedangkan daunnya yang lebar mengapung di permukaan air. Bunga padma yang sedang mekar berada di atas permukaan air, menengadah, bersih dari noda lumpur, dengan kelopaknya yang merekah sempurna ke segala arah. Karakter fisik padma yang sedemikian rupa ini telah lama melahirkan ilham dijadikannya padma sebagai bunga suci dalam ajaran Hindu dan Buddha. Dalam seni lukis dan seni arca timur, padma juga sering dijadikan lapik atau atribut yang digenggam tokoh dewa-dewi tertentu. Di Bali, padma juga dijadikan sebagai konsepsi dasar wujud bangunan suci dan arah mata angin. Kelopak-kelopak bunga padma yang merekah sempurna sering kali dikaitkan dengan keberadaan delapan arah mata angin utama yang diyakini dijaga oleh para dewata utama pula. Tulisan ini merupakan ringkasan dari suatu kajian yang menerapkan metode hermeneutik tentang filosofi bunga padma dan keterkaitannya dengan konsep arah mata angin utama yang dikenal dalam tatanan arsitektur tradisional Bali. Pada beberapa bagian juga akan dipaparkan gambaran wujud penerapan konsepsi bunga padma tersebut dalam berbagai perwujudan arsitektur tradisional Bali. Hasil akhir penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa Konsepsi Padma ini telah terejawantahkan dalam tata ruang Pulau Bali, tata mandala pura, seni bangunan suci, dan seni ikonografis arca tradisional Bali.

 

Padma refers to red water lily in Sanskrit. Padma grows naturally in the mud media with enough water content. Its roots spread in the soil planting media, the stem is submerged in water, while the leaves float on the water surface. Water lily flower blooms above the surface of the water, looking up, clean from mud, with petals that splitting all directions. Such padma’s physical characteristics have brought inspiration so that it becomes a sacred flower in Hinduism and Buddhism. In Eastern art, padma is often used as a pedestal or character attributes of certain gods or goddess. In Bali, padma serves as the basic concept of the sacred structure form and eight directions. The splitting petals of padma are often associated with the presence of the eight cardinal directions guarded by eight major gods. This paper is a summary of the study which applied the methods of philosophical hermeneutics on the philosophy of padma and its relevance to the concept of the main wind direction known in the order of traditional Balinese architecture. In some parts, it is also described the application description of Padma concept various embodiments of the Balinese traditional architecture. The final result of this research shows that Padma concept applied on Bali island masterplan, Hindu temple mandalas, holy buildings and iconographic of traditional Balinese sacred statues.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26418/lantang.v3i1.16720

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